25. Mar, 2018

How to Make Rye / Wheat Bread at Home

Rye bread is very good, healthy and yummy. Have you tried it? It can be made pure or mixed with other flours. Today I’m going to share my recipe of rye and wheat bread so that you all can make it at home. Just think about the smell of homemade bread coming out of your oven. I will also try to transmit  the benefits of wheat and rye as food, both cereals, have practically the same nutritional properties, benefits and are very tasty, used in the food industry in several forms: breads, cakes, biscuits, puddings, juices, among others. From the information available with regards to these cereals we can evaluate the importance of having them in our food ,with  the exception of people who have gluten intolerance, which is found in the composition of these cereals. Rye: is a fast-growing annual with long linear leaves. It can reach heights of 1 to 2 meters, depending on the variety. Its small florets (reduced flowers) are wind-pollinated and are borne in dense spikes; they develop into one-seeded fruits, or grains, with long awns (bristles). Rye cultivation probably originated in southwestern Asia about 6500 BC migrating westward across the Balkan Peninsula and over Europe. Modern rye is grown extensively in Europe, Asia, and North America. It is mainly cultivated where climate and soil are relatively unfavorable for other cereals and as a winter crop where temperatures are too cool for winter wheat. The plant, which thrives in high altitudes, has the greatest winter hardiness of all small grains, growing as far north as the Arctic Circle. Rye contains gluten and is the only cereal other than wheat that has the necessary qualities to make a loaf of bread, though it is inferior to wheat for that purpose and lacks elasticity. Because of its dark color, a loaf made entirely from rye flour is often called black bread. The lighter-colored rye breads popular in Europe and the United States contain admixtures of wheat or other flours in addition to rye. Pumpernickel, a dark brown bread made wholly from unsifted rye flour, was a staple food in central and Eastern Europe for centuries.

Wheat, any of several species of cereal grasses of the genus Triticum and their edible grains. Wheat is one of the oldest and most important of the cereal crops. Of the thousands of varieties known, the most important are common wheat (Triticum aestivum), used to make bread; durum wheat (T. durum), used in making pasta (alimentary pastes) such as spaghetti and macaroni; and club wheat (T. compactum), a softer type, used for cake, crackers, cookies, pastries, and flours. Additionally, some wheat is used by industry for the production of starch, paste, malt, dextrose, gluten, alcohol, and other products. Cultivation and repeated harvesting and sowing of the grains of wild grasses led to the creation of domestic strains, as mutant forms of wheat were preferentially chosen by farmers. In domesticated wheat, grains are larger, and the seeds (inside the spikelets) remain attached to the ear by a toughened rachis during harvesting. In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to easily shatter and disperse the spikelets.Selection for these traits by farmers might not have been deliberately intended, but simply have occurred because these traits made gathering the seeds easier; nevertheless such 'incidental' selection was an important part of crop domestication. As the traits that improve wheat as a food source also involve the loss of the plant's natural seed dispersal mechanisms, highly domesticated strains of wheat cannot survive in the wild. Cultivation of wheat began to spread beyond the Fertile Crescent after about 8000 BCE. Archaeological analysis of wild emmer indicates that it was first cultivated in the southern Levant with finds dating back as far as 9600 BCE.Genetic analysis of wild einkorn wheat suggests that it was first grown in the Karacadag Mountains in southeastern Turkey. Dated archeological remains of einkorn wheat in settlement sites near this region, including those at Abu Hureyra in Syria, suggest the domestication of einkorn near the Karacadag Mountain Range.

In Portugal, rye bread is the fruit of a respectable popular tradition. The raw material (wheat, corn or rye) used to make bread vary with the climate and the type of cereal that was best produced in each zone of the country. In Trás-os-montes (Chaves), Beira interior and other regions traditional bread was often made with rye flour. In regions where the land was poorer the rye seed was cultivated. For centuries, in Portugal, this bread was eaten daily. With the industrialization, the white bread, softer, practically became more common.. Amongst the typical products of each region, there is always a bread, in this case rye bread, kneaded by hand and baked in a wood oven, conditions that make the end product very tasty. The bread was once baked in private or community ovens, to be consumed for approximately two weeks. The oven keeper heated the oven, treated the wood, laid the bread, and took care of it during the baking process. His work was paid in kind: he got a loaf of bread for his work ("poia" was the name given to this payment).

Ingredients: 500g rye flour, plus extra for dusting300g strong white or wheat flour, 20g baker’s yeast, ½ tsp fine salt, 1 tbsp honey.  Preparation: Tip the flours, yeast and salt into a bowl. In a jug, mix the honey with 250ml warm water; pour the liquid into the bowl and mix to form dough. Rye flour can be quite dry and absorbs lots of water, if the dough looks too dry add more warm water until you have a soft dough Tip out onto your work surface and knead for 10 mints until smooth. Rye contains less gluten than white flour so the dough will not feel as springy as a conventional white loaf. Place the dough in a bowl, cover with cling film and leave to rise in a warm place for 2-3 hrs, or until roughly doubled in size. Place a sheet of oven paper in a oven tray and with flour. Tip the dough back onto your work surface and knead briefly to knock out any air bubbles.. Shape into a smooth oval loaf and pop into oven tray. Cover the tray with cling film and leave to rise somewhere warm for a further  1.5 hr, or until doubled in size. Heat oven to 220 deg. C Remove the cling film and dust the surface of the loaf with wheat flour. Slash a few incisions on an angle then bake for 30 mins until brown and hollow sounding when tapped. Transfer from oven to a wire cooling rack and leave to cool for at leas 20 mins before serving. I hope you do try it out, making bread is simple just follow the recipe and respect times, don't forget to place a coment on my page. Happy Easter to all.